EMDR is an eight-phase treatment method. A case report indicating the effectiveness of EMDR is also described. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy (Shapiro, 200) was initially developed in 1987 for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and is guided by the adaptive information processing model (Shapiro 200). EMDR is an individual therapy that is usually given once to twice a week for a total of 6 to 12 sessions, although some people benefit from fewer sessions.
Sessions can be held on consecutive days. In addition to obtaining a complete history and carrying out the appropriate evaluation, the therapist and the client work together to identify treatment goals. Goals include past memories, current triggers, and future goals. The fifth phase of EMDR is the installation, which strengthens the preferred positive cognition.
The sixth phase of EMDR is the body scan, in which clients are asked to observe their physical response while thinking about the incident and positive cognition, and identify any residual somatic distress. If the customer reports a disturbance, standardized procedures involving the BLS are used to process it. Closure is used to end the session. If the target memory was not fully processed in the session, specific instructions and techniques are used to provide containment and ensure security until the next session.
Mike was a 32-year-old flight doctor who had completed two tours in Iraq. He had been discharged from the Army due to his post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and divorced a 2-year-old son. Army psychologist referred Mike for treatment of his PTSD with desensitization therapy and eye movement reprocessing. This is the middle point of therapy where you will work with your EMDR therapist to rationally assess the disruptive event that caused your trauma.
As you do this, the therapist will work to help the brain change the way it associates trauma with its trigger. Often, at this stage, patients are asked to focus on an image that invites a negative reaction, while simultaneously performing bilateral eye movements. This type of stimulation is usually performed in a series of sets that must be determined by the therapist, and each set lasts approximately 25 to 30 seconds. After completing each set of eye movements, you will be asked to take a deep breath and provide feedback on what you experienced during treatment.
The intensity of your traumatic response will dictate the speed and duration of the next set of eye movement stimulation. As with any large company, getting the details right is absolutely crucial. That's why the first 1-2 sessions of an EMDR treatment are meant simply to establish a history, discuss the problems and events that prompted a client to seek treatment, and discover the ways in which those problems manifest themselves in negative behaviors or symptoms. It is important to note that although many of a client's traumatic memories are touched upon, there is no need to go into specific details.
An EMDR therapist only needs a general outline to build, and this helps prevent any unnecessary suffering. The preparation phase is where the foundations for treatment are established and solidified. Here, greater trust is developed between the client and the therapist, and the therapist will share some specific techniques to properly manage emotional disturbances and fluctuations in the next few sessions. This trust is vital to the overall success of therapy.
This stage is where the customer better understands the methodology involved and what they can expect during future sessions. This way, they can accurately report their thoughts and emotions as treatment progresses. The desensitization phase focuses on negative emotions and sensations, and their measurements on the SUD score. The client will focus on a central memory of an objective event while the therapist guides them through a series of eye movements, physical touches, or quick sounds.
In this process, they will also focus on interconnected memories and associations as needed, overcoming negative sentiments until the SUD score drops to an acceptable level. Customers may start with central memory and move systematically through associates, to the point of going beyond their initial goals and expectations. Under the careful guidance of the therapist, they can achieve complete resolution. At this stage, the positive beliefs expressed in the Assessment are used to replace the original negative ones.
As the effects of the desensitization phase help the client to process traumatic memories and regain a sense of power and control over their situation, these positive ideas are reinforced and used to overcome the past. While it may not be possible to achieve a customer's highest confidence rating on the VOC scale of a positive belief (ie,. From here, self-confidence and healthier feelings can be developed and internalized. Each new session begins with a reassessment of customer needs.
The phase 1 treatment plan is reviewed and used to guide not only that session, but also the overall goals of multiple sessions. Over time, evaluations are expected to show a clear healing trend, in which the client will become increasingly independent and confident as therapy progresses. By the end of a full treatment, the client will have dealt with past trauma, gained tools to guide them through similar situations in the present, and have learned to navigate a future that seems more hopeful than ever. Not only does the EMDR process involve eye movements, it is a carefully planned 8-step process, including creating a customer history to identify specific memories and beliefs to target.